The Penguin Social History of Britain noted that "by the 1920s newspapers were filled with advertisements for 'lingerie' and 'undies' which would have been classed as indecent a generation earlier". Thus, in Ben Travers' comic novel Rookery Nook (1923), a young woman evicted from home in her nightwear and requiring day clothes remarked, "Combies. That's all right. But in the summer you know, we don't ...", while in Agatha Christie's thriller, The Seven Dials Mystery (1929), the aristocratic heroine, Lady "Bundle" Brent, wore only "a negligible trifle" under her dress; like many real life "it girls" of her class, she had been freed from the "genteel expectations" of earlier generations. In Hollywood the actress Carole Lombard, who, in the 1930s, combined feistiness with sexual allure, never wore a brassière and "avoided panties". However, she famously declared that though "I live by a man's code designed to fit a man's world ... at the same time I never forget that a woman's first job is to choose the right shade of lipstick" Coincidentally, sales of men's undershirts fell dramatically in the United States when Lombard's future husband, Clark Gable, was revealed not to be wearing one in a famous motel bedroom scene with Claudette Colbert in the film It Happened One Night (1934). According to Gable, "the idea was looking half-naked and scaring the brat into her own bed on the other side of the blanket [hanging from a clothesline to separate twin beds]". However, he "gave the impression that going without was a vital sign of a man's virility" More generally, the adoption by the American movie industry of the Hays Production Code in the early 1930s had a significant effect on how moral, and especially sexual, issues were depicted on film. This included a more conservative approach to matters of dress. Whereas the sort of scanty lingerie on show in some earlier productions (for example, Joan Blondell and Barbara Stanwyck in Night Nurse, 1931) had tended to reflect trends that, in the 1920s, defied convention and were regarded many young women as liberating, by the early years of the Depression such displays came to be regarded quite widely as undesirable. Developments in the late 1960s and 70s, when the strictures of the code were abandoned, followed a similar pattern, although, by then, it was often women themselves who were in the vanguard of resistance to sexualised imagery.
In F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story, Bernice Bobs Her Hair (1920), a young woman who wishes to become a "society vamp" regards the adoption of a bob as a necessary prelude, while Louise Brooks' sexually charged performance as Lulu in G. W. Pabst's film, Pandora's Box (1929), left an enduring image of the style, which has been replicated on screen over the years, most vividly by Cyd Charisse in Singin' in the Rain (1952), Isabelle de Funès as Valentina in Baba Yaga (1973) and Melanie Griffith in Something Wild (1986). It was associated also with many popular singers and actresses in the 1960s and has frequently been evoked by writers and directors, as well as fashion designers, seeking to recapture the hedonsitic or free spirit of the 1920s. For example, Kerry Greenwood's Cocaine Blues (1989) and succeeding novels about Phryne Fisher, a glamorous, but unconventional aristocratic investigator in late twenties Melbourne, Australia, conveyed an image – "five feet two [157.5 centimetres] with eyes of green and black hair cut into a cap" – that was later cultivated stylishly on television by Essie Davis in ABC's Miss Fisher's Murder Mysteries (2012).
^ Though more conventional in many ways than Jane Morris, Georgie Burne-Jones was becoming "a bit of a bohemian" even in the early days of her marriage; for example, she would ask her maid to model for sketches in mid-morning, whereas a typical bourgeois wife would have given priority to the housework: Fiona MacCarthy (2011) The Last Pre-Raphaelite.
^ Quoted in Halliwell's Filmgoer's Companion (10th ed. 1993) edited by John Walker. Almost 70 years after Lombard's death, the Sunday Times described red lipstick as the "ne plus ultra [not further beyond] of make up ... We respect red lipstick as a badge of loveliness and youth (Georgia May), bold style (Florence Welch), sexual confidence (Scarlett Johansson) and old-school glamour (Rosie Huntington-Whiteley) – and, above all, we appreciate that it doesn't work for everyone": Shane Watson in Style, 4 December 2011.
^ At the time, Seale & McConville (op.cit.) described de Gaulle's survival in 1968 as "an amazing demonstration of political virility in a man of 77". He resigned the following year and died in 1970. A later historian contrasted the stature of de Gaulle with "the soap opera lives" of Presidents Sarkozy (2007-12) and Hollande (2012-): Jonathan Fenby (2015) The History of Modern France: From Revolution to Present Day
there [was] no question that the Hippy [sic] movement and its repercussive influence in England owed much of its imagery, its manner, dress and personal appearance to the Pre-Raphaelite ideal ... It was observed by all of us who were involved with these exhibitions [of pre-Raphaelite paintings] that visitors included increasing numbers of the younger generation, who had begun to resemble the figures in the pictures they had come to see.
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The documentary film, Festival (Murray Lerner, 1967), recorded how the "clean-cut college kids" who attended the Newport (Rhode Island) Folk Festival in 1963-4 had, by 1965 (when Bob Dylan caused a sensation at that year's festival by playing an electric guitar), become "considerably scruffier": "the hippies were waiting to be born". Among other things, the wearing of male neckties, which, in the mid-1960s, had often drawn on 19th century paisley patterns, declined as muttonchop whiskers and teashades (sunglasses) came in: by the time of the Chicago 7 trial (late 1969), hair over the collars had become so commonplace that it was beginning to transcend Bohemian style, taking on mass popularity in the 1970s. The London art dealer Jeremy Maas reflected in the mid-1980s that
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Reflecting on the fashion style of "boho-chic" in the early years of the 21st century, the Sunday Times thought it ironic that "fashionable girls wore ruffly floral skirts in the hope of looking bohemian, nomadic, spirited and non-bourgeois", whereas "gypsy girls themselves ... are sexy and delightful precisely because they do not give a hoot for fashion". By contrast, in the late 19th century and first half of the 20th, aspects of Bohemian fashion reflected the lifestyle itself.
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